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Energy Security

The External Legal Relations of the European Union with Major Oil and Gas Supplying Countries

By: Sanam S. Haghighi
Media of Energy Security
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Published: 31-08-2007
Format: PDF eBook (?)
Edition: 1st
Extent: 510
ISBN: 9781847313782
Imprint: Hart Publishing
Series: Modern Studies in European Law
RRP: £90.00
Online price : £72.00
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Loren Epson

About Energy Security

This book offers the first comprehensive assessment of the various internal and external measures undertaken by the European Union to guarantee security of oil and gas supply. It sets out and analyses in a coherent and thorough manner those aspects of EU external policy that are relevant in establishing a framework for guaranteeing energy security for the Union. What makes the book unique is that it is the first of its kind to bridge the gap between EU energy and EU external policy.
The book discusses EU policy towards the major oil and gas producing countries of Russia, the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf at the bilateral as well as regional and multilateral level. It brings together not only the dimensions of trade and investment but also other important aspects of external policy, namely development and foreign policy. The author argues that the EU's energy security cannot be achieved through adopting a purely internal approach to energy issues, but that it is necessary to adopt a holistic approach to external policy, covering efficient economic relations as well as development co-operation and foreign policies towards energy producing countries.
The book will be a valuable resource for students of EU law, WTO law or international energy law, as well as scholars and practitioners dealing with energy issues.

Table Of Contents

1 Security of Energy Supply in Europe: An Analysis
1.1. Security of Energy Supply: The Fundamentals
1.2. Energy Security: Perspectives on Demand, Supply, and Risks
1.3. Energy Security: Actors and Instruments
1.4. Concluding Remarks
2 External Security of Energy Supply in Europe: Historical Overview
2.1. Introduction
2.2. The Restructuring of the Energy Supply Framework:1951–1958
2.3. The Development of the Energy Supply Framework:1959–1972
2.4. The Oil Crisis and the New Phase of Energy Policy:1973–1986
2.5. The Feeble Attempt to Create an Efficient External Energy Policy: 1987–2006
3 Division of Competences and Security of Energy Supply
3.1. Brief Remark
3. 2. Introduction
3.3. From the Treaty Establishing the ECSC to the Nice Treaty
3.4. Energy Competences in the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe
3.5. External Competences: The Evolution in the Case Law of the ECJ
3.6. Division of Competences and the CFSP
4 Internal Outlook: EU Measures in the Field of Energy
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Community Measures Affecting Trade in Energy Goods and Services
4.3. The Obligation to Hold Stocks of Crude Oil and/or Petroleum Products
4.4. The Directive on the Security of Natural Gas Supply
4.5 External Aspect of Important Internal Soft Measures
4.6. Conclusion: The Division of Competences and Security of Energy Supply
5 External Outlook: Energy Charter Treaty and the GATT/WTO
5.1. Introduction
5.2. The Energy Charter Treaty: A General Overview
5.3. The Investment Regime of the ECT
5.4. The Trade Regime: ECT and GATT/WTO Compared
5.5. The Transit Regime of the Energy Charter Treaty
5.6. Conclusion: The ECT and Europe's Security of Energy Supply
6 EU Relations with Russia, the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf Countries: The Missing Elements
6.1. EU–Russia Energy Relations
6.2. EU–Mediterranean Energy Relations
6.3. EU–Persian Gulf Countries' Energy Relations
6.4. Conclusion
7 The Two Missing Sides: The Development Cooperation Policy and the CFSP
7.1. The Development Cooperation Policy and Energy Security: An Inter-relation


“…a welcome addition to the comparatively slight body of academic work in respect of the internal and external measures of the European Union towards energy security in the context of external policy. The extent and diversity of the bibliography is an indication of the research and sources which have contributed to this review, and the book has a helpful table of the (comparatively few) cases of relevance and the (far more extensive) legislation.” –  Paul Griffin, International Energy Law Review, Issue 3, 2008

“...Sanam S. Haghighi's meticulous analysis describes the legitimization of European Union (EU) energy policy that goes far beyond a historical level of regional influence justified in securing and controlling energy supplies for the economic alliance of all European Member of the greatest offerings made by this book lies in the chapters which calculate the external forces, programs, institutions, and markets necessary for building the EU's internal framework laws for over twenty nation-states that have a finite supply and increasing demand of oil and gas...The book demonstrates exhaustive primary research and shows mastery of the secondary material necessary to become a valid resource in the field…” –  Nicholas P. Guehlstorf, The Law and Politics Book Review, Vol. 18 No.8 (August 2008)

“This is a high quality monograph published at a time when EU external energy policy is in the makings...By providing a comprehensive overview and a detailed analysis of the key issues, this book is a valuable source for academics and institutional actors in the field energy and foreign policy...[T]his is a well-balanced book that is built on the existing legal documents, international and European case law as well as the most important academic work in the field of energy and foreign policy. By introducing her triangular approach as a model for EU external energy policy, Haghighi makes a valuable contribution to the current discussion.” –  Kim Talus, Common Market Law Review, Vol 45 issue 2

“The book provides a solid legal analysis of the existing internal and external measures in relation to energy security and is rich in detailed analysis. It is well structured and each chapter highlights specific issues of the legal EU energy security complex…The great strength of the book is its emphasis on the triangular economics–politics–development perspective on EU energy security. Although this is not new in the energy security literature in general, it extends the EU energy security debate beyond the often overemphasized economic perspective.” –  Raphael Sauter, European Foreign Affairs Review, Volume 13 Issue 3

“This is an impressively broad, yet detailed, study of the external legal relations of the European Union (EU) with major energy-supplying countries. Although primarily a legal text, Sanam Salem Haghighi has succeeded in producing a book of much wider significance. Not content to provide a meticulous description of European law in the energy sphere, the author offers a carefully considered prescription for broadening out and improving EU external energy policy...a first-class contribution to the literature. Whilst functioning as a unified piece of work, the book will also serve as a useful reference guide. It is essential reading for students of EU energy law, but will also be of great value to anyone with a general interest in European energy security.” –  James D.J. Brown, Journal of Contemporary European Research, Vol 4, Issue 2

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