Since the release of the first edition of this commentary, quite a few important changes have taken place in the realm of EU trade mark law. Most of the reforms proposed in 2013 have now matured into law. By way of Regulation 2015/2424 of 16 December 2015, the CTMR was comprehensively amended and the regulation on the fees payable to the Office repealed. All in all, the reform of the former framework brought about more than 145 amendments. These changes have been codified by Regulation 2017/1001 of 14 June 2017. Needless to say, all changes of a material, procedural or mere terminological nature are commented in detail in the respective context of this profoundly revised second edition.