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Monetary Remedies for Breach of Human Rights

A Comparative Study

By: Lisa Tortell
Media of Monetary Remedies for Breach of Human Rights
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Published: 13-11-2006
Format: Hardback
Edition: 1st
Extent: 236
ISBN: 9781841135113
Imprint: Hart Publishing
Series: Human Rights Law in Perspective
Dimensions: 234 x 156 mm
RRP: £75.00
Online price : £67.50
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About Monetary Remedies for Breach of Human Rights

This book constructs a framework which allows a greater understanding of domestic causes of action for breaches of human rights sounding in a monetary remedy. The first part describes the cause of action in three jurisdictions: the United States of America, India and New Zealand.

The second part discusses two insights resulting from a comparative analysis of these three jurisdictions. The first is a list of four common questions that, when answered, structure the cause of action. These questions address what the cause of action protects, who the cause of action protects, against whom the cause of action is directed, and what the court orders. The second is a list of four overarching influences that affected the answers given to those questions in the three jurisdictions, so completing the structure of the causes of action. These influences are the cause of action's source, age, wider context and internal context. Putting these two chapters together provides a generalised outline of the causes of action.

In the third part of the book the analysis is turned around. The generalised framework is assessed as a way in which to categorise the development and shape of the cause of action in England under the Human Rights Act 1998.

The book concludes that a generic structure of the cause of action is common to the three jurisdictions studied and that the differences between the jurisdictions can be explained by influences that affect the causes of action in different ways. Further, this generalised framework is of relevance beyond the three jurisdictions from which it was drawn; it can be used as a guide by other jurisdictions in which such a cause of action either exists or will develop in the future.

Table Of Contents

1 Introduction
2 United States of America: Section 1983 and Bivens
A. Introduction
B. Actions against State Governments
C. Actions against Federal Officers
D. Summary: The Causes of Action in the United States
3 India: Article 32
A. Introduction
B. The Constitution and the Supreme Court
C. The Centrality of Article 32
D. The Relationship between Articles 32 and 226
E. Standing
F. The Development of a Monetary Remedy
G. Expansion of the Remedy
H. Summary
4 New Zealand: Baigent's Case
A. Introduction
B. New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990
C. The Cause of Action
D. Summary
5 Structure of the Cause of Action
A. Introduction
B. What Does the Cause of Action Protect?
C. Who Does the Cause of Action Protect?
D. Against Whom Is the Cause of Action Directed?
E. What Does the Court Order?
F. Conclusions
6 Overarching Influences
A. Introduction
B. What Is the Source of the Cause Of Action?
C. What Is the Age of the Cause of Action?
D. What Is the Wider Context of the Cause Of Action?
E. What Is the Internal Context of the Cause of Action?
F. Conclusions
7 The United Kingdom Human Rights Act 1998
A. Introduction
B. Completing the Framework: the Overarching Influences
C. Answering the Common Questions: Towards an Application to the
Human Rights Act
D. Conclusions
8 Conclusion


“…a fascinating comparative study...Tortell does a thorough and careful job of analyzing the process of submitting legal claims for human rights violations...Legal scholars, social scientists, and graduate students interested in comparative law, human rights and transnational legal learning will benefit immensely from Monetary Remedies for Breach of Human Rights.” –  Srini Sitaraman, Law and Politics Book Review, Vol 18, No 2

“...the real value of this book lies in the pointers given for future development and debate...For those grappling with the complexities of the topic at the domestic level, whether in the United Kingdom, or elsewhere, this book will be a valuable asset.” –  Merris Amos, Public Law

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