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The Rise and Decline of Fundamental Rights in EU Citizenship

By: Adrienne Yong
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Published: 21-03-2019
Format: PDF eBook (?)
Edition: 1st
Extent: 248
ISBN: 9781509917952
Imprint: Hart Publishing
Series: Modern Studies in European Law
RRP: £31.49
Online price : £25.19
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About The Rise and Decline of Fundamental Rights in EU Citizenship

This book argues that there is an inherent relationship between EU fundamental rights and EU citizenship: they both have the same objective of guaranteeing protection for the individual. This is underpinned by the development of case law in the field by the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). Here, however, the author proposes that that relationship has weakened in recent years as the CJEU has entered increasingly sensitive territory in regard to the protection of citizenship rights and fundamental rights.

Writing in the post UK–EU referendum environment, the author argues that this decline is attributable to increasing Euroscepticism, which has worsened since the Eurozone crisis and even more so in light of Brexit, and arguments made that leaving the EU would reduce immigration. This argument is particularly important to note given the rising fears of immigration that underlie much of the dissatisfaction with the EU project: a feeling prevalent not only in the UK. The chapters look at the rights of migrant EU citizens in Member States other than their own, and the guarantees that exist as a matter of protecting their fundamental human rights, which are present alongside rights enjoyed as part of being an EU citizen.

Table Of Contents

1. Examining EU Citizenship and its Relationship with EU Fundamental Rights
I. Introduction
II. Linking EU Citizenship and Fundamental Rights
A. Understanding EU Fundamental Rights
B. Legitimacy and Solidarity in the EU
C. The Role of the Court
III. The Legal Culture of the Court
IV. Judicial Instruments in EU Citizenship Law
A. The Principle of Non-discrimination (Article 18 TFEU)
B. The Principle of Proportionality
C. Protecting National Welfare Systems and the 'Genuine Link' Test
D. The 'Purely Internal Situations' Rule
E. The 'Deprivation of Genuine Enjoyment' Test
V. The Three Ages of EU Citizenship
A. The Age of Uncertainty: The UK's Withdrawal from the EU
VI. Methodology and Outline of the Analysis
2. The Progressive Empowerment of EU Citizens through Judicial Instruments and Fundamental Rights
I. Introduction
II. Empowering the EU Citizen
A. Workers and Family Life
B. Non-discrimination as a Fundamental Right
C. Fundamental Rights Protection through Proportionality
D. Proving a Genuine Link
III. Cross-border Residency
A. The Purely Internal Situations Rule
B. Respect for Family Life and Identity
C. An Increasingly Tenuous Cross-border Link
D. The Problem of Reverse Discrimination
IV. Conclusion
3. The Growing Potential of EU Citizenship's Relationship with Fundamental Rights
I. Introduction
II. Fundamental Rights in EU Citizenship Pre-Lisbon
A. AG Jacobs' Opinion in Konstantinidis (1992)
B. The Rise of Fundamental Rights Protection in EU Citizenship
C. AG Colomer's Opinion in Petersen (2008)
III. Fundamental Rights in EU Citizenship Post-Lisbon
A. Post-Lisbon, but Pre-Zambrano
B. AG Sharpston's Opinion in Zambrano (2010)
i. Residency Rights and Third Country Nationals
ii. Fundamental Rights
C. An Independent Legal Basis for Citizenship Rights
IV. Conclusion
4. The Constitutional Crisis of EU Citizenship and Fundamental Rights
I. Introduction
II. The Aftermath of Zambrano
A. Restricting Scope in the McCarthy and Dereci Cases
B. 'Genuine Enjoyment' and Fundamental Rights
III. EU Citizenship Cases after Zambrano
A. 'Genuine Enjoyment' after McCarthy and Dereci
B. Patterns in Recent Case Law
IV. Conclusion
5. Fundamental Rights and EU Citizenship in a Eurosceptic EU
I. Introduction
II. The Effect of Europe's Crisis on its Citizens
A. Struggles of the Status of EU Citizenship
B. The Effect of the Charter of Fundamental Rights
III. Linking EU Fundamental Rights with EU Citizenship
A. Implications of Human Rights Protection under the ECHR
B. Limits on Linking EU Fundamental Rights with EU Citizenship Status
C. The ECHR and EU Citizenship Going Forward
IV. Conclusion
6. The Unfolding Story of EU Citizenship and Fundamental Rights in Brexit Britain
I. Introduction
II. The Crisis of British Withdrawal from the EU
A. An Increasingly Eurosceptic UK and Deferential CJEU
B. Negotiating Citizens' Rights
III. A 'Just' Brexit?
A. Human Rights as Realised by International Standards
B. Weaknesses of the ECHR
IV. Conclusion
7. Concluding Thoughts


“[A]n important and valuable contribution to the discussion on the EU citizenship status and its relationship with the fundamental rights in the EU. The author accurately centres the debate around the main issue: the tension between the universal character of fundamental rights and the exclusivity of EU citizenship. Yong displays expertise and precision when delineating the area of judicial controversies and doctrinal disputes. Finally, she makes a convincing prediction concerning their further course. She touches upon topical issues that concern the EU's very foundations. The book can be recommended to both scholars and students interested in law and the European integration policy. In addition, it is a valuable source of information for individuals who deal with applying EU legislation.” –  Ziemowit Cieslik, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Poland, European Journal of Social Security

“[T]his book represents a valuable contribution to knowledge and a lucid account of the evolutive stages of integration with a focus on EU citizenship rights.” –  Sonia Morano-Foadi, Oxford Brookes University, European Law Review

“Adrienne Yong takes a fresh look at the relationship between EU fundamental rights and EU citizenship in her monograph ... While both EU fundamental rights and EU citizenship are about protecting individuals, Yong convincingly argues that increasingly the CJEU has diluted this relationship between citizenship and rights. She examines a number of cases of the CJEU to make her argument and highlights the importance of this dissociation in the contemporary times of Brexit ... Overall the book ably demonstrates how law does not develop in isolation and has profound effects on politics.” –  Devyani Prabhat, University of Bristol Law School, European Human Rights Law Review

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