That there is a tension between European competition law and agreements between undertakings aiming at sustainability-improvements seems undeniable. This tension currently seems to play out most visibly in the Netherlands, where several highly contested competition law cases have shown that within European competition law it may be difficult to allow cooperation between firms with social, environmental or sustainability aims. The book will be focused on European competition law. The developments in the Netherlands are a leading example, for the simple reason that the debate has been most vocal there. However, the debate in which this book is set has much wider relevance than only European competition law. The book chooses to look at the problem of the tension between competition law and sustainability from a multidisciplinary angle, which includes sustainability-literature, economic theory, European integration theory and ethics. The book will appeal to scholars and practitioners of competition law, policy makers, businesses and civil society organizations with an interest in moving towards a more sustainable economy.