Provides an analysis of the origins, current sources, and character of privacy law in Ireland with a particular focus on how to navigate privacy claims and balance privacy with other interests before the Irish courts.
It clarifies the relationship between private law protection of privacy rights in tort and statute, and constitutional conceptions of the right and compares how European Union and international law impacts on the privacy jurisprudence of the Irish courts.
Part One: Addresses the sources of privacy rights in Ireland, with an account of how the right to privacy has been protected under the European Convention on Human Rights and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, explaining the influence of the ECHR on privacy adjudication before the CJEU and outlining the trickle-down impact of the decisions of both courts on the secondary laws of the European Union, and national law in turn.
Part Two: Considers the genres of privacy recognised by the Irish courts namely, personal, spatial and informational privacy. The chapters in this part consider the recent decisions in respect of data retention and privacy rights in Dwyer v Commissioner of Garda Síochána as well as the implications of the CJEU and Supreme Court decisions in the matter for criminal prosecutions relying on data retained under the now invalidated legislation. Part Two also considers the recent Supreme Court decision in DPP v Quinn which adds significantly to the jurisprudence of the Irish courts in respect of digital privacy under Article 40.5 of the Constitution, and has implications for the search of digital devices more broadly.
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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION Introduction I. Origins of the Right to Privacy: A Nineteenth-Century Right? a. The Emergence of Personality Rights in French Law b. The North American “Discovery” of Privacy c. Breach of Confidence in English Law d. The Emergence of Privacy as a Human Right II. Distinguishing Between Private and Public Law Conceptions of Privacy a. Tortious Conceptions of Privacy b. Constitutional Conceptions of Privacy i. Inviolability of the Dwelling ii. Privacy Rights under the Constitution c. European Union Privacy Protections: Between Private and Public III. Untangling the Sources of Privacy Rights and Privacy Law IV. A Note for Practitioners CHAPTER 1 THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY: CONTESTED DEFINITIONS 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Privacy: Attempts to Conceptualise an Elusive Right 1.2.1 Spatial and Social Conceptions of Privacy 1.3 Understanding the Functions of Privacy 1.3.1 Consequentialist and Deontological Views of Privacy 1.3.2 Autonomy Based Theories of Privacy 1.3.3 Dignitarian Theories of Privacy 1.4 Defining Privacy in Irish Law 1.4.1 Personal privacy 1.4.2 Spatial privacy 1.4.3 Informational privacy
PART I – SOURCES OF PRIVACY RIGHTS IN IRISH LAW CHAPTER 2 THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY UNDER THE ECHR 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Locating the Limits of Privacy under Article 8 ECHR 2.2.1 The Scope of Article 8 22.214.171.124 Negative and Positive Obligations 126.96.36.199 Procedural Requirements of Article 8 2.2.2 Substantive Content of Article 8 188.8.131.52 Private Life 184.108.40.206 Family Life 220.127.116.11 Home 18.104.22.168 Correspondence 2.2.3 Justified Interferences with Article 8 22.214.171.124 In accordance with the Law 126.96.36.199 Legitimate Purpose 188.8.131.52 Necessary in a Democratic Society 2.4 Genres of Privacy in the Law of the ECtHR 2.4.1 Personal or Relational Privacy 184.108.40.206. Personal Identity (a) Gender Identity (b) Personal Appearance (c) Names (d) Biological, National, Ethnic and Religious Origins 220.127.116.11 Reputation 18.104.22.168 Moral, Physical and Psychological Integrity 22.214.171.124 Family and Personal Relationships 126.96.36.199 Sexuality and Sexual Activity 188.8.131.52 Parentage and Adoption 184.108.40.206 Childcare and Child custody 220.127.116.11 Immigration 18.104.22.168 Employment and Political Activities 2.4.2 Spatial Privacy 22.214.171.124 Protections of 'Home' from Entry and Search 126.96.36.199 The Expansion of 'Home' 188.8.131.52 Protection of Environment 184.108.40.206 Protection of Personal Space 220.127.116.11 Privacy in Custodial Spaces 18.104.22.168 Privacy in Public Spaces 2.4.3 Informational Privacy 22.214.171.124 Data Protection 126.96.36.199 Rights to Access Data 188.8.131.52 Covert Surveillance 184.108.40.206 Choices Regarding Medical Treatment 220.127.116.11 Confidentiality in Lawyer-Client Relationships 18.104.22.168 Publication of Private Details 2.5 Remedies 2.6 Consideration of Article 8 ECHR by the Irish Courts CHAPTER 3 THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY IN EU LAW 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Privacy Under the Charter of Fundamental Rights 3.2.1 Private Life 3.2.2 Family Life 3.2.3 Home 3.2.4 Communications 3.3 The Relationship Between Articles 7 and 8 3.4 Genres of Privacy in EU law 3.4.1 Relational Privacy 22.214.171.124 Name and Other Aspects of Personal Identity 126.96.36.199 Rights of Residence and Family Reunification 188.8.131.52 Protection of Victims of Crime 184.108.40.206 Gender Equality 3.4.2 Spatial Privacy 220.127.116.11 Search and Seizure 18.104.22.168 Privacy in Public 22.214.171.124 Environmental Protection 3.4.3 Informational Privacy 126.96.36.199 Data Retention 188.8.131.52 Data Protection 184.108.40.206 Covert Surveillance 220.127.116.11 3.5 Limitations and Derogations 3.6 Remedies CHAPTER 4 THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY UNDER THE IRISH CONSTITUTION
4.1 Introduction 4.2 The Constitutional Elevation of a Common Law Right 4.3 The Emergence of a Right to Privacy in the Irish Constitution 4.3.1 The Recognition of a Privacy Right in McGee v Attorney General 4.3.2 An Expanded Right in Norris v Attorney General? 4.3.3 A Definitive Acknowledgement in Kennedy v Ireland 4.4 Contested Sources in the Constitutional Text 4.4.1 The Protection of Privacy Under Article 40.5 4.5 The Scope of a Constitutional Right to Privacy 4.5.1 A Bundle of Rights? 4.5.2 Genres of Privacy Recognise under the Constitution 4.5.3 Extension of a Right to Privacy to Private Parties 4.5.4 Constitutional Workarounds and the Third-Party Doctrine 4.6 Balancing Privacy and Competing Rights 4.7 The Test for Breach of Privacy in Irish Law 4.8 Remedies for Breach of Privacy 4.8.1 Declarative Relief 4.8.2 Injunctive Relief 4.8.3 Super-Injunctions 4.8.4 Damages 18.104.22.168 Damages for Breach of Rights by Unconstitutional Legislation 22.214.171.124 Exemplary Damages for Breach of Constitutional Rights 126.96.36.199 Quantum of Damages 4.8.5 New Remedial Approaches CHAPTER 5 THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY IN IRISH TORT LAW
5.1 Introduction 5.2 The Development of Privacy Torts in Common Law 5.2.1 The Four US Privacy Torts 188.8.131.52 Intrusion upon seclusion 184.108.40.206 Public disclosure of private facts 5.2.2 Canadian Approaches to Privacy Torts 5.2.3 Misuse of Private Information in English Common Law 5.2.4 Australian Approaches to Privacy Torts 5.2.5 New Zealand's Approach to Privacy Torts 5.3 A Privacy Tort in Irish Law? 5.3.1 Distinguishing Privacy Torts from Torts Related to Privacy Interests 5.3.2 Torts Protecting Privacy Interests 220.127.116.11 Breach of Confidence 18.104.22.168 Torts Affecting Land and Goods 22.214.171.124 Torts Affecting the Person 126.96.36.199 Negligence and Breach of Statutory Duty 188.8.131.52 Private Nuisance 184.108.40.206 Malicious Falsehood 5.4 Defences to Privacy Infringements in Tort Law 5.4.1 Consent 5.4.2 Waiver 5.4.3 Estoppel 5.4.4 Information Already Public 5.4.5 Public Interest 220.127.116.11 Matters of governmental and public importance 18.104.22.168 Illegality, wrongdoing or misconduct 22.214.171.124 Dangers to public safety 126.96.36.199 Correcting false or misleading information 188.8.131.52 Expressing views of vulnerable groups or persons 5.4.6 Iniquity 5.5 Tortious Remedies and Procedure in Cases for Breach of Privacy 5.5.1 Tortious Remedies in Privacy Cases 184.108.40.206 Compensatory and exemplary damages 220.127.116.11 Damages for mental distress 18.104.22.168 Gain-based relief 22.214.171.124 Apologies and corrections 5.5.2 Procedural Issues in Privacy Cases 126.96.36.199 Norwich Pharmacal Orders 188.8.131.52 Springboard Injunctions 5.5.3 Remedies Under the Data Protection Act 2018 PART II – THE GENRES OF PRIVACY IN IRISH LAW CHAPTER 6 FAMILY AND RELATIONAL PRIVACY IN IRISH LAW 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Privacy and the Family in Irish Law 6.3 Privacy Beyond the Family 6.3.1 The Decision in I O'T v B: Relational Privacy at its Limit? 6.3.2 The Pattern of Relational Privacy Begun in Foy v An tArd Chláraitheoir 6.4 Statutory Recognitions of Relational Privacy 6.4.1 The Assisted Decision Making (Capacity) Act 2015 6.4.2 The Birth Information and Tracing Act 2022 6.4.2 The Harassment, Harmful Communications and Related Offences Act 2020 CHAPTER 7 PRIVACY OF THE HOME 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Common Law Protections of the Dwelling 7.3 Defining the Private and Home in European Law 7.4 Article 40.5 and the Right to Privacy 7.5 Household Exemptions from the GDPR CHAPTER 8 PRIVACY IN PUBLIC SPACES
8.1 Introduction 8.2 Limiting Privacy in Public Places 8.2.1 The Right to Privacy for Public Figures 184.108.40.206 The Privacy of Public Figures in England and Wales 220.127.116.11 The Decisions of the ECtHR and the 'Public Figure Doctrine' 18.104.22.168 The Privacy of Public Figures in Ireland 8.2.2 Modalities for Assessing Privacy for Public Persons and in Public Places 8.3 Peninsulas of Privacy in Public 8.3.1 Privacy for Employees in Otherwise Public Spaces 8.3.2 Shared Custodial and Care Settings 8.4 Mass Surveillance and Privacy in Public and Quasi-Public Spaces 8.5 The Garda Síochána (Digital Recording) Bill 8.6 The Right to Privacy and Open Justice
CHAPTER 9 INFORMATIONAL & COMMUNICATIONS PRIVACY 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Confidentiality, Privilege and Privacy 9.2.1 Privilege as a Privacy Protection 9.2.2 Confidentiality 9.3 Recognitions of Informational Privacy 9.3.1 Emergence of Informational Privacy 9.4 Constitutional Protections of Informational Privacy 9.5 Statutory Provisions in Respect of Informational Privacy in Irish Law 9.5.1 Offences of Harassment and Unauthorised Disclosure of Information 9.5.2 Regulatory Obligations to Respect Privacy 9.5.3 Restrictions on Disclosure or Publication of Information or Material 9.5.4 Surveillance, Searches and Investigations 9.5.5 The Data Protection Act 2018 9.5.6 Data Retention and Communications Surveillance in Irish Law 22.214.171.124 The Decision in Digital Rights Ireland 126.96.36.199 The Decisions in Dwyer v Commissioner of An Garda Síochána 188.8.131.52 Voluntary Retention and Disclosure of Communications